JAs have likely strengthened state planning to address the social disadvantages of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, which are relevant to addressing detention rates. In addition, three of the five legal systems that have developed an AJA since 2000 have also formulated an “intergovernmental” strategic policy of the Aborigines and Torres Strait Islander, which covers a broader social and economic framework, with a certain emphasis on justice issues.  16.29 State and territory governments may have other strategies or judicial frameworks to reduce the detention of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islander. However, ALRC believes that the AJMs are an important initiative to promote partnership with the Aborigines and peoples of Torres Strait, to promote strategic planning and to facilitate collaborative, culturally appropriate and effective criminal responses. 16.32 JAs were first introduced following a summit of Aboriginal and Islanders organizations in Torres Strait in 1997. These organizations were concerned about a gap in accountability to the State and Territory Government, which had concluded after states and territories committed to account for the imprisonment of Torres Strait Aborigines and Islanders, as recommended by the Royal Commission to Aboriginal Deaths in Custody.  Subsequently, these organizations met with Ministers of the Commonwealth, State and Territory, responsible for criminal justice, and it was decided to develop LMAs.  16.43 Victorian JJSs were assessed in 2012. The evaluation showed that the agreements had “significant improvements in the equity outcomes for Victoria coories” but that improvements could be made.  For example, it found that women`s opportunities for diversion were limited, one of many important risk points in the system that could be strengthened to reduce over-representation.
 16.50 In its application, the NT Anti-Discrimination Commission stated that it supported the value of the LMAs: “Each jurisdiction will have a unique demographic, geographical situation, a profile of Aboriginal communities and the history of that jurisdiction.”  As a result, there is no single model for an AJA that can be used across Australia. Each AJA must be developed from scratch, through extensive consultation with the Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islander.